Tuesday, August 27, 1991

Pearl Jam Released Ten


Pearl Jam

Released: August 27, 1991

Peak: 2 US, 18 UK, 1 CN, 11 AU

Sales (in millions): 13.0 US, 0.6 UK, 18.9 world (includes US and UK)

Genre: rock > grunge


Song Title (Writers) [time] (date of single release, chart peaks) Click for codes to singles charts.

  1. Once [3:51]
  2. Even Flow [4:53] (4/6/92, 3 AR, 21 MR, 27 UK, 74 CN, 22 AU)
  3. Alive [5:40] (7/7/91, 16 AR, 18 MR, 16 UK, 9 AU)
  4. Why Go (Ament/ Vedder) [3:19]
  5. Black [5:48] (12/26/92, 3 AR, 20 MR)
  6. Jeremy (Ament/ Vedder) [5:18] (8/15/92, 70a US, 5 AR, 5 MR, 15 UK, 32 CN, 68 AU, sales: ½ million)
  7. Oceans (Ament/ Gossard/ Vedder) [2:41] (12/7/92, --)
  8. Porch (Vedder) [3:30]
  9. Garden (Ament/ Gossard/ Vedder) [4:58]
  10. Deep (Ament/ Gossard/ Vedder) [4:18]
  11. Release (Ament/ Gossard/ Krusen/ McCready/ Vedder) [6:30]

Songs written by Gossard/ Vedder unless noted otherwise.

Total Running Time: 53:20

The Players:

  • Eddie Vedder (vocals)
  • Mike McCready (guitar)
  • Stone Gossard (rhythm guitar)
  • Jeff Ament (bass)
  • Dave Krusen (drums, percussion)


4.333 out of 5.00 (average of 24 ratings)

Quotable: “A flawlessly crafted hard rock masterpiece” – Steve Huey, All Music Guide

Awards: (Click on award to learn more).

About the Album:

“In retrospect, it’s easy to see why Pearl Jam clicked with a mass audience – they weren’t as metallic as Alice in Chains or Soundgarden, and of Seattle’s Big Four, their sound owed the greatest debt to classic rock.” SH “Pearl Jam’s rhythm section links the majestic brawn of Led Zeppelin to the righteous fervor of the Who to the visceral, distorted, frayed-nerve guitar attack that made Seattle famous.” TM Ten embraces “the structured guitar work of Jimi Hendrix over Nirvana's buzz saw leads.” RV Pearl Jam’s album was marked by Eddie Vedder’s “urgent, highly distinctive timbre” GW and “shaky, agonized growl” RS not to mention “intricately arranged guitar textures and expansive harmonic vocabulary.” SH

“Though they rock hard, Pearl Jam is too anti-star to swagger, too self-aware to puncture the album’s air of gravity.” SH They tackle “weighty topics – abortion, homelessness, childhood traumas, gun violence, rigorous introspection – with an earnest zeal unmatched since mid-‘80s U2, whose anthemic sound they frequently strive for.” SH “Vedder’s impressionistic lyrics often make their greatest impact through the passionate commitment of his delivery rather than concrete meaning.” SH “His stories don’t always unfold in linear fashion or end with a tidy summary.” TM As McCready said of Vedder, “He’s a man full of conviction. That comes in his singing and writing, and hopefully our music backs that up.” GW

Grunge Pioneers:

Ten, Pearl Jam’s debut album, “didn’t explode out of the box.” GW It reached its commercial peak nearly a year after its release. However, it eventually found itself “in a grunge popularity contest” RS with Nirvana’s Nevermind although the two “had very little in common, beyond a raw, raging power that had been missing from rock for too long.” TB They also both offered “a message to a disillusioned generation, a salve for their feeling of isolation” NP and “a cathartic purging of pain and loss.” NP

Nevermind got the lion’s share of credit for breaking grunge and alternative to the mainstream, SH but it may surprise people to know that Ten was certified for more sales by the Recording Industry Association of America (13 million to Nevermind’s 11 million).

The appeal of Nevermind “wasn’t universal; rock radio still viewed them as too raw and punky, and some hard rock fans dismissed them as weird misfits.” SH However, Pearl Jam were “the latest manifestation of the primeval power than galvanizes rock whenever it gets complacent.” PR It didn’t just help in legitimizing grunge, but “in reshaping hard rock” RS with its “ferocious synthesis of hard rock and punk to articulate the pain and frustration of a generation.” PR Even Nirvana’s Kurt Cobain insisted that Pearl Jam could hardly be considered “alternative,” given that they featured such prominent guitar leads. NP “Radio programmers in search of acceptable grunge to to play alongside Led Zeppelin, U2 and Guns N’ Roses” GW discovered Pearl Jam “songs that sounded great anytime, anywhere.” GW

Mother Love Bone:

Pearl Jam’s origins can be traced back to Green River, a mid-‘80s grunge band featuring guitarist Stone Gossard and bassist Jeff Ament. The band can almost be considered ground zero for grunge as other members Mark Arm and Steve Turner would go on to form Mudhoney, another pioneering grunge group. While Arm was more about the DIY ethic of punk bands like Black Flag, Gossard and Ament drew inspiration from more commercial hard rock acts like AC/DC and Kiss. NP

When Green River broke up, Gossard and Ament went on to form Mother Love Bone with singer Andrew Wood. However, tragedy struck when he died of an accidental heroin overdose on March 19, 1990 – just weeks before the band released their debut album, Apple. NP

Mookie Blaylock:

That summer, Gossard and Ament started jamming with guitarist Mike McCready. With the help of Soundgarden drummer Matt Cameron, they put together some instrumental which they sent out in a search for a lead singer and permanent drummer. Eddie Vedder, a surfer and singer from San Diego, responded with lyrics and vocals for a song called “Alive,” based on the instrumental “Dollar Short” from the tape sent out by Gossard and company. NP Vedder had been with a band called Bad Radio for four years, but left because they didn’t match his level of ambition. NP

The band originally called themselves Mookie Blaylock after the New Jersey Nets basketball player. They changed the name to Pearl Jam, supposedly after a hallucinogenic jam which Vedder’s great grandmother made, but the story is probably made up. The band did maintain a reference to Blaylock on the debut by calling it Ten, which was Blaylock’s jersey number. NP

Temple of the Dog:

Just as Mookie Blaylock were coming together, another project inspired by Andrew Wood’s death surfaced. Chris Cornell, the lead singer of Soundgarden and one-time roommate of Wood’s, wrote the songs “Say Hello 2 Heaven” and “Reach Down” in response to Wood’s death. While Matt Cameron was working with the future members of Pearl Jam on their initial demo tape, he played Cornell’s songs for them. Ament called Cornell and suggested they make an entire album. The project took on the name “Temple of the Dog” after a line in the Mother Love Bone song “Man of Golden Words.” NP

Most of the lyrics and music were written by Cornell, but Gossard contributed “Pushin’ Forward Back,” “Four Walled World,” and “Times of Trouble.” Vedder also sang backup on a few tracks and even sang lead alongside Cornell on “Hunger Strike.”

After sessions for Temple of the Dog ended, Mookie Blaylock returned to the studio three months later in January 1991. They produced their first EP, which featured “Alive,” “Wash,” and “I’ve Got a Feeling.” They recorded the rest of the album in sessions between March 27 and April 26.

“Alive” was a “twin-guitar-powered rocker” TB “interpreted as an anthem by many.” WK However, Vedder explained that the song was semi-autobiographical in that he was raised thinking his stepfather was his real dad. At 17, she informed him that his biological father had died. NP The song also has a creepy vibe in that in her grief, the mother tries “to sexually embrace her son, who strongly resembles the biological father.” WK As Vedder said, “the song’s protagonist ‘is still dealing with the death of [his] father’” and feels “puzzled and burdened by the knowledge that ‘I’m still alive.’” TM When Vedder gave the song to Gossard and Ament, it struck a chord for them because of its theme about loss. NP

“Even Flow”
“Even Flow” was released as the second single from the album. It encompassed Vedder’s sympathy for the homeless. NP

“Virtually everything…on this rousing debut, goes straight for the jugular.” TM For example, Jeremy told the true story of “a seriously disturbed 16-year-old student at Richardson High School in Dallas, Texas, who had shot himself dead in front of his class.” TB Vedder combined the story of Jeremy Wade Delle with his memory of a San Diego junior high classmate who took a gun to school and went “on a shooting spree, though with less disastrous results.” TB It “gave voice to a generation of children ignored and abused.” RV The video won MTV’s award for Video of the Year.

Meanwhile “the poignancy of Black made it all right, even for indie rockers, to feel heartsick.” RV This was another song Vedder wrote lyrics for after hearing the already recorded demos, this time specifically for a song called “E Ballad.” NP

Other Songs
Vedder wrote Why Go about a friend who was hospitalized after he was caught smoking pot. NP Release was a message to the father he never knew. NP Ocean was based on people Vedder knew. NP Still, “no matter how cathartic Ten’s tersely titled songs got,” SH they were “just cryptic enough to get you thinking and not so brainy that it forgets to rock.” TM “They were never abrasive enough to affect the album’s accessibility,” SH which was aided by its “warm, rich sound.” GW “The result is a flawlessly crafted hard rock masterpiece.” SH

Notes: Ten was reissued in 2009 as a two-CD set with bonus tracks “Brother,” “Just a Girl,” “Breath and a Scream,” “State of Love and Trust,” 2000 Mile Blues,” and “Evil Little Goat.” “Pearl Jam brought in their longtime producer Brendan O’Brien to remix Ten from the ground up, to strip away the studio affectations of producer Rick Parashar and mixer Tim Palmer that made it a bright, shiny anomaly during the dingy heyday of grunge and make the album sound more like the rest of the band's work.” STE

That was “followed by a triple-disc set that adds a DVD of the band's 1992 performance for MTV Unplugged and then there's a gargantuan, frankly ludicrous, collectors edition that has all that plus four slabs of vinyl containing the two mixes of the album plus a 1992 live show, one cassette that replicates the original demo Eddie Vedder turned in as his audition, and assorted memorabilia that retails for $200.00.” STE

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First posted 3/22/2008; last updated 2/15/2022.

Thursday, August 22, 1991

On This Day in Music (1891): “Listen to the Mocking Bird” hit #1

Listen to the Mocking Bird (aka “The Mocking Bird”)

Septimus Winner as Alice Hawthorne (words), Richard Milburn (music)

Writer(s): Septimus Winner as Alice Hawthorne (words), Richard Milburn (music) (see lyrics here)

Published: 1855

First Charted: August 22, 1891 (John Yorke Atlee)

Peak: 16 US (Atlee) (Click for codes to charts.)

Sales (in millions): 20.0 (sheet music)

Airplay/Streaming (in millions): -- radio, 0.38 video, -- streaming

Awards: (Winner/Milburn)

Click on award for more details.

Awards (John Yorke Atlee):

Awards (Frank Stanley):

About the Song:

Septimus Winner, a Philadelphia songwriter, music teacher, publisher, and music store propietor, was inspired to write this tune in 1855 after hearing Richard “Whistling Dick” Milburn. The African American barber busked on the streets of Philadelphia, playing guitar and whistling. He sometimes imitated a mockingbird. Winner added lyrics about a narrator mourning the loss of his beloved Hally. He visits her grave and hears a mockingbird singing, which they often did when she was alive. JM

Soon after he published the song, Winner sold the copyright for five dollars, missing out on a huge windfall. Milburn, meanwhile, reportedly only received 20 copies of the song as payment SF and his name was later removed from the credits. In the early 20th century, a Philadelphia newspaper estimated that the song had sold 20 million copies of sheet music in America and Europe. JM That figure, however, has never been verified and is assumed to be wildly exaggerated. SS

In Yesterdays: Popular Song in America, Charles Hamm asserts that “Mocking Bird” was significant in popularizing the verse-chorus structure that would become nearly universal in popular music. SS Among the song’s fans were King Edward VII of England, who said he whistled the song as a boy, and Abraham Lincoln who called it “a real song…as sincere and sweet as the laughter of a little girl at play.” JM The cover of the sheet music calls the song “a sentimental Ethiopian ballad.” TY2

John Yorke Atlee, who was known as “the Artistic Whistler,” had the first charting version of the song in 1891, taking it to #1. It charted three more times, peaking at #3 each time. Joe Belmont did the trick in 1899, Frank Stanley with Corrine Morgan in 1904, and Alma Gluck in 1915. PM The verse of the song was used as an instrumental introduction to short films by the Three Stooges. WK It has also been used in TV cartoons Heckle and Jeckle, The Flintstones, and SpongeBob SquarePants. WK


First posted 4/15/2021; last updated 9/2/2023.

Monday, August 12, 1991

Metallica released “The Black Album”: August 12, 1991

Originally posted August 12, 2012.

image from loudwire.com

Release date: 12 August 1991
Tracks: (Click for codes to singles charts.) Enter Sandman (8/10/91, #16 US, #5 UK, #10 AR, sales: 0.5 m) / Sad But True (12/5/92, #98 US, #20 UK, #15 AR) / Holier Than Thou / The Unforgiven (11/2/91, #35 US, #15 UK, #10 AR) / Wherever I May Roam (7/11/92, #82 US, #25 UK, #25 AR) / Don’t Tread on Me / Through the Never / Nothing Else Matters (3/14/92, #34 US, #6 UK, #11 AR) / Of Wolf and Man / The God That Failed / My Friend of Misery / The Struggle Within

Sales (in millions): 15.4 US, 0.3 UK, 24.6 world

Peak: 14 US, 11 UK


Review: Depending on who you ask, Metallica’s eponymous 1991 release (nicknamed The Black Album for its monochromatic cover) “is either the band’s musical high point or the beginning of its downfall.” GW Previously, the group “wrote scathing diatribes about such topics as our desensitized society and the horrors of drug addiction, signed with a major record label, and then watched millions of kids buy these spewings, all without the benefit of one hummable melody.” EW “After the muddled production and ultracomplicated song structures of ...And Justice for All, Metallica decided that they had taken the progressive elements of their music as far as they could.” AMG After all, “You can only pound your head against a wall for so long before you get a headache.” EW

In an attempt to simplify their sound, “rock’s pre-eminent speed-metal cyclone” EW tapped Bob Rock, who had produced Bon Jovi and Mötley Crüe, to give them “crisp, professional production” AMG and add “a previously nonexistent warmth and depth to their sound.” GW The group “slowed down the tempos, streamlined the arrangements” GW and “the songs are tighter (the nine-minute behemoths of Justice are gone).” EW In addition, “the arrangements more concise, and the band plays actual hooks.” EW

Enter Sandman

“The band still roars and lumbers like Godzilla partying in Tokyo, but the lyrics are, well, introspective.” EW “The best songs are more melodic and immediate, the crushing, stripped-down grooves of Enter Sandman, Sad but True, and Wherever I May Roam sticking to traditional structures and using the same main riffs throughout.” AMG They “are three of the most direct and compelling tunes in Metallica’s catalog.” GW

Wherever I May Roam

On “Sad But True,” “grunting singer James Hetfield confesses his devotion to his partner while chastising her for not taking responsibility for her day-to-day life. Granted, it’s not '’Feelings,’ but huge leaps in emotional expression may be too much to expect from a band that titled its first album Kill ‘Em All.” EW Meanwhile, “Sandman,” “Roam,” and God That Failed are examples of how the group crafted “slower and more groove-oriented” AZ material while still featuring “the same heavy riffs and heavier rhythms that have always been a feature of Metallica's music.” AZ

Sad But True

Metallica “avoid the slash-and-burn guitar riffs that had always punctuated the band’s ballads.” AMG The “introspective” AZ The Unforgiven is “a sulking rumination on one man’s ruined life.” EW It “starts slowly, with crystalline overlays of acoustic and electric guitars, and builds to a cruncher with Kirk Hammett’s emotional, vibrato-drenched guitar solo. By welding the jackhammer attack of thrash to the complexities of old-fangled art rock, Metallica may have invented a new genre: progressive thrash.” EW

The Unforgiven

The “full-fledged love song” AMG Nothing Else Matters is “complete with string section, which works much better than might be imagined.” AMG “The video was extra jaw-dropping, showing the lads being (gasp!) sensitive in the studio.” BL Of the change in their sound, frontman James Hetfield said, “It’s scary to look out [at a show] and see couples hugging during that song.” RS500

Nothing Else Matters

“The song- and riff-writing slips here and there, a rare occurrence for Metallica, which some longtime fans interpreted as filler next to a batch of singles calculated for commercial success.” AMG While “the hard-core gagged at Metallica’s blatant commercialism,” BL “the band’s newly pared-down assault converted millions, making thrash seem almost mainstream” BL and “the biggest band in the world” GW with “one of the bestselling metal albums ever.” RS500

“In fact, the band’s popularity exploded so much that most of their back catalog found mainstream acceptance in its own right, while other progressively inclined speed metal bands copied the move toward simplification.” AMG At its best, Metallica “deservedly captured the heavy metal crown” AMG with “some of the best songwriting Metallica has ever done,” AZ but it “also foreshadowed a creative decline.” AMG

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