Wednesday, September 26, 2007

50 years ago: West Side Story debuted on Broadway

First posted 3/7/2011; last updated 9/29/2020.

West Side Story

Leonard Bernstein/Stephen Sondheim (composers)

The Albums: This page offers an overview of the West Side Story Broadway show as well as the two major albums it birthed:

You can click on one of the links above to go directly to that part of the page or simply read on for a more complete background of West Side Story.

About the Broadway Show:

West Side Story is hailed as “one of the greatest musicals of all time.” RU Conceived by Arthur Laurents as a modern take on Romeo and Juliet, he recruited Leonard Bernstein for the music, Stephen Sondheim for the lyrics in what would become his Broadway debut, and Jerome Robbins as the choreographer and director. It opened on Broadway on September 26, 1957 at the Winter Garden Theatre and “ran for 732 performances (a successful run for the time), before going on tour.” WK It won Tonys for choreography and scenic design, led to an Academy-award winning film, and became a favorite of “schools, regional theatres, and occasionally by opera companies.” WK

Jerome Robbins first approached Leonard Bernstein and Arthur Laurents in 1949 with his idea of adapting Romeo and Juliet as a contemporary musical. A first draft called East Side Story focused on conflict between a Catholic family and a Jewish family living in Manhattan on the Lower East Side. It was shelved for its similarity to plays lie Abie’s Irish Rose, WK but revived in 1955 when Laurents was approached to adapt the novel Serenade by James M. Cain. That project didn’t make it either, but it connected Laurents with Stephen Sondheim. Along with Bernstein and Robbins, they decided to return to the East Side Story. WK

The musical faced understandably difficult challenges. Critics “said the score was too rangy for pop music” WK and with more dancing than any previous Broadway show WK it would be problematic to find a cast who could sing, dance, and act. Laurents wanted James Dean as Tony, but he died before even hearing about the role. WK

However, the eventual production was well received by audiences and critics. It “galvanized Broadway with its vivid reinvention as a parable of racial intolerance and generational conflict.” SS “The story appealed to society’s undercurrent of rebellion from authority that surfaced in 1950s films like Rebel without a CauseWK and “the musical also made points in its description of troubled youth and the devastating effects of poverty and racism.” WK

“The dark theme, sophisticated music, extended dance scenes, and focus on social problems marked a turning point in American musical theatre.” WK Musically, Bernstein “integrated Latin percussion and jazz into his electrifying score” EV alongside “symphonic grandeur” RU “and a rarely heard (in Broadway) toughness.” RU Bernstein’s efforts “dazzlingly translating New York’s unique vitality into a musical idiom.” EV

Set in the mid-1950s in New York City, the story explores the rivalry between two street gangs of different ethnicities. The Sharks are Puerto Rican and the Jets are working-class white. The protagonist, Tony, is a Jet and falls in love with Maria, who is the sister of Bernardo, the Sharks’ leader.

During a challenge dance (Dance at the Gym) between the Jets and the Sharks, Tony meets Maria. Bernardo breaks up their attempted kiss and sends her home, but Tony serenades her outside her bedroom (Maria) and they profess their love to each other (Tonight). WK

The next day at the bridal shop where Maria works, she asks Tony to stop a planned fight between the Jets and Sharks. Tony tries to stop the fight (The Rumble), but when Riff, the leader of the Jets, is stabbed by Bernardo, Tony kills Bernardo in a rage. Maria is devastated when she hears, but still decides to run away with Tony. “As the walls of Maria’s bedroom disappear, they find themselves in a dreamlike world of peace (Somewhere).” WK

After Maria’s friend Anita is nearly raped by the Jets, she claims Chino killed Maria in jealousy. When Tony hears, he decides he has nothing to live for. He confronts Chino, begging to die, and is shot by him just as he sees that Maria is actually alive. The Jets now move towards the Sharks, wanting to avenge the death of another friend. With Chino’s gun in her hand, Maria tells everyone that hatred is what killed Tony and the others and that now she too can kill because she hates. However, she drops the gun in grief and gradually the gang members on both side “assemble on either side of Tony’s body, showing that the feud is over.” WK

West Side Story

cast album


4.825 out of 5.00
(average of 8 ratings)

Opened on Broadway: September 26, 1957

Recorded: September 29, 1957

Charted: March 17, 1958

Peak: 5 US, -- UK, -- CN, -- AU

Sales (in millions): 2.5 US, 0.6 UK, 3.1 world (includes US and UK)

Genre: show tunes

Tracks: (1) Prologue (2) Jet Song (3) Something’s Coming (4) The Dance at the Gym (5) Maria (6) Tonight (7) America (8) Cool (9) One Hand, One Heart (10) Tonight (11) The Rumble (12) I Feel Pretty (13) Somewhere (Ballet) (14) Gee, Officer Krupke! (15) A Boy Like That/I Have a Love (16) Finale

Quotable: “Takes up the American musical idiom where it was left when George Gershwin died.” – John Chapman, New York Daily News WK


About the Cast Album:

The cast album was recorded three days after West Side Story opened on Broadway at the Winter Garden Theatre on September 26, 1957. It was recorded in New York City at CBS 30th Street Studio. Leonard Bernstein oversaw the orchestration and the cast included Carol Lawrence as Maria and Larry Kert as Tony.

Notes: The 1998 reissue of the cast album added nine instrumental tracks.

West Side Story



4.767 out of 5.00
(average of 6 ratings)

Charted: October 23, 1961

Peak: 154 US, 113 UK, -- CN, -- AU

Sales (in millions): 8.0 US, 0.1 UK, 8.1 world (includes US and UK)

Genre: show tunes

Tracks: (1) Overture (2) Prologue (3) Jet Song (4) Something’s Coming (5) The Dance at the Gym (6) Maria (7) America (8) Tonight (9) Gee, Officer Krupke! (10) I Feel Pretty (11) One Hand, One Heart (12) Quintet (13) The Rumble (14) Somewhere (15) Cool (16) A Boy Like That/I Have a Love (17) Finale


About the Soundtrack:

A film adaptation, directed by Robbins and Robert Wise, was released on October 18, 1961. As ground-breaking as the show was on Broadway, it became another animal entirely when transferred to film. It was the second highest-grossing film of the year in the United States and won 10 Academy Awards, including Best Picture. WK Natalie Wood was cast as Maria and Richard Beymer as Tony. The singing was handled by Marni Nixon and Jimmy Bryant. The “lavish widescreen presentation broke fresh ground by taking the story to its most impressionable audience, the teenagers who could identify directly with Tony and Maria, and opened up Jerome Robbins’ kinetic choreography through bravura camera work.” SS

While “the 1957 original Broadway cast recording still holds up today, …[it] isn’t as good as the movie soundtrack” RU which “was not merely a huge seller but a unique touchstone for an otherwise rock-oriented audience.” SS It “spent more weeks at #1 in the charts (54) than any other album in history” WR and “made more money than any other album before it.” WK It also won the Grammy for Best Soundtrack or Cast Album.

Three songs from West Side Story charted, although none were from the cast album or soundtrack. Maria was recorded by Johnny Mathis (#78, 1960) and Roger Williams (#48, 1962). Tonight was recorded by Ferrante & Teicher (#8, 1961) and Eddie Fisher (#44, 1961). Somewhere was recorded by P.J. Proby (#91, 1965), Len Barry (#26, 1966), and Barbra Streisand (#43, 1986).

Resources and Related Links:

Sunday, September 23, 2007

50 years ago: Buddy Holly hit #1 with “That’ll Be the Day”

That’ll Be the Day

Buddy Holly & the Crickets

Writer(s): Buddy Holly/ J.I. Allison/ Norman Petty (see lyrics here)

Released: May 27, 1957

First Charted: July 27, 1957

Peak: 11 US, 4 HP, 3 CB, 3 HR, 2 RB, 13 UK (Click for codes to singles charts.)

Sales (in millions): 1.0 US, -- UK, 1.0 world (includes US + UK)

Airplay/Streaming (in millions): 3.0 radio, 10.46 video, 52.15 streaming


Click on award for more details.

About the Song:

“That’ll Be the Day” came about as the result of a John Wayne movie. Buddy Holly and drummer Jerry Allison went to see the Western The Searchers. Whenever a character would suggest something that wasn’t likely to happen, Wayne would proclaim, “That’ll be the day.” SF One night at Jerry’s house, Buddy suggested that it would be nice if they could record a hit song, to which Jerry replied, “That’ll be the day.” SF

Holly recorded the song with Allison, guitarist Sonny Curtis, and bassist Don Guest AMG in Nashville in 1956 SF with a more country-oriented vibe than the version that would become a hit. NRR Allison has said that Decca producer Owen Bradley said, “That’s the worst song I’ve ever heard.” KL

When that contract expired in January 1957, Holly took the song to Norman Petty, who’d impressed him with his production on Buddy Knox’s “Party Doll.” BR Technically, Holly wasn’t contractually permitted to re-record the song. However, Holly & company could cut it under a group name. KL After rejecting the name The Beetles, they settled on The Crickets “because of their happy, chirping sound.” KL

Later, the Beatles moniker re-surfaced for the Fab-Four – inspired by the Crickets, and especially “That’ll Be the Day,” since it was one of the first songs John Lennon learned. HL

A year after the second recording of the song, Holly was killed in a plane crash on 2/3/59, a tragedy often known as “the day the music died” because it also took the lives of fellow rock singers the Big Bopper and Ritchie Valens. His career was short, but with the “endearing hiccup in Holly’s voice, the bouncy rockabilly beat, [and] an intriguingly enigmatic story line” AMG the song “That’ll Be the Day” would live on as one of early rock and roll’s most classic tunes.

Resources and Related Links:

  • DMDB Encyclopedia entry for Buddy Holly
  • AMG All Music Guide review by Bruce Eder
  • BR Fred Bronson (2003). The Billboard Book of Number One Hits (5th edition). Billboard Books: New York, NY. Page 26.
  • HL Michael Heatley and Spencer Leigh (1998). Behind the Song: The Stories of 100 Great Pop & Rock Classics. London, England: Blandford Books. Page 12.
  • KL Jon Kutner and Spencer Leigh (2005). 1000 UK Number One Hits: The Stories Behind Every Number One Single Since 1952. London, Great Britain: Omnibus Press. Page 46.
  • NRR National Recording Registry
  • SF Songfacts

Last updated 10/4/2021.