Saturday, January 5, 1991

200 years ago today: Mozart completed his final concerto (January 5, 1791)

Last updated 11/19/2020.

Piano Concertos (27)

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (composer)

Composed: 1767-1791

Last Concerto Completed: January 15, 1791

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Genre: classical > piano concertos

Concertos (Year of Completion) [Approximate Length of Work]:

  1. No. 1 in F major, K. 37 (April 1767) [16:00]
  2. No. 2 in B flat major, K. 39 (April 1767) [15:00]
  3. No. 3 in D major, K. 40 (April 1767) [13:00]
  4. No. 4 in G major, K. 41 (April 1767) [14:00]
  5. No. 5 in D major, K. 175 (December 1773) [22:00]
  6. No. 6 in B♭ major, K. 238 (January 1776) [21:00]
  7. No. 7 in F major, K. 242 for three pianos (February 1776) [25:00]
  8. No. 8 in C major, K. 246 (April 1776) [23:30]
  9. No. 9 in E♭ major, K. 271 (January 1777) [33:30]
  10. No. 10 in E♭ major, K. 365/316a for two pianos (1779) [25:00]
  11. No. 11 in F major, K. 413/387a (1782–1783) [22:30]
  12. No. 12 in A major, K. 414/385p (1782) [26:30]
  13. No. 13 in C major, K. 415/387b (1782–1783) [28:30]
  14. No. 14 in E♭ major, K. 449 (February 9, 1784) [22:30]
  15. No. 15 in B♭ major, K. 450 (March 15, 1784) [25:30]
  16. No. 16 in D major, K. 451 (March 22, 1784) [22:30]
  17. No. 17 in G major, K. 453 (April 12, 1784) [29:45]
  18. No. 18 in B♭ major, K. 456 (September 30, 1784) [29:00]
  19. No. 19 in F major, K. 459 (December 11, 1784) [27:45]
  20. No. 20 in D minor, K. 466 (February 10, 1785) [29:00]
  21. No. 21 in C major, K. 467 (March 9, 1785) [26:00]
  22. No. 22 in E♭ major, K. 482 (December 16, 1785) [35:00]
  23. No. 23 in A major, K. 488 (March 2, 1786) [27:00]
  24. No. 24 in C minor, K. 491 (March 24, 1786) [29:45]
  25. No. 25 in C major, K. 503 (December 4, 1786) [32:30]
  26. No. 26 in D major, K. 537 (February 24, 1788) [30:45]
  27. No. 27 in B♭ major, K. 595 (January 5, 1791) [29:30]


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About the Concertos:

Mozart wrote his 27 original concertos for piano and orchestra over a span of 25 years. He composed many of them to play himself in the Vienna concert series of 1784-86. WK They are recognized as “among his greatest achievements.” WK

The first four concertos were based on piano sonatas composed by others, a common practice in operas of the day. They were arranged in 1767 when Mozart was eleven. The next six, known as the Salzburg concertos, were written from 1773-79. No. 5 “was his first real effort in the genre, and one that proved popular at the time.” WK No. 6 was the first “introduce new thematic material in the piano's first solo section.” WK The seventh and eight concertos “are generally not regarded as demonstrating much of an advance, although No. 7 is quite well known.” WK

“Nine months after No. 8, however, Mozart produced one of his early masterpieces,” WK the ninth concerto, known as the “Jenamy” (formerly “Jeunehomme).” WK “This work shows a decisive advance in organization of the first movement, as well as demonstrating some irregular features.” WK No. 10, the end of his Salzburg period, was written for two pianos, the presence of which “disturbs the ‘normal’ structure of piano-orchestra interaction.” WK

Nos. 11-13 are known as the Early Vienna concertos. Mozart wrote them in the autumn of 1782, about 18 months after his arrival in Vienna, “for his own use in subscription concerts.” WK He described the trio of concertos in a letter to his father as “a happy medium between what is too easy and too difficult; they are very brilliant, pleasing to the ear, and natural, without being vapid.” WK They “are all rather different from one another and are relatively intimate works despite the mock grandeur of the last one.” WK That one, No. 13, “is an ambitious, perhaps even overambitious work, that introduces the first, military theme in a canon in an impressive orchestral opening.” WK

Nos. 14-25, written between 1784 and 1786, are known as the Major Vienna concertos. They represent “a period of creativity that has certainly never been surpassed in piano concerto production.” WK No. 14 “is the first instrumental work by Mozart that shows the strong influence of his operatic writing.” WK No. 15 “shows a reversion to an earlier, galant style.” WK No 16. “is a not very well known work…The first movement is broadly "symphonic" in structure and marks a further advance in the interactions between piano and orchestra.” WK

Nos. 17-19 “can be considered to form a group, as they all share certain features, such as the same rhythm in the opening.” WK No. 17 “was written for Barbara Ployer and is famous in particular for its last movement.” WK No. 18 “was for a long time believed to have been written for the blind pianist Maria Theresa von Paradis to play in Paris.” WK No. 19 “is sunny with an exhilarating finale.” WK

The year 1785 was “marked by the contrasting pair…[of Nos. 20 and 21] remarkably, written within the same month. These two works, one the first minor-key concerto Mozart wrote…and a dark and stormy work, and the other sunny, are among the most popular works Mozart produced.” WK No. 22 “is slightly less popular, possibly because it lacks the striking themes of the first two.” WK

“In 1786, Mozart managed to write two more masterpieces in one month.” WK No. 23 was “one of the most consistently popular of his concertos, notable particularly for its poignant slow movement in F♯ minor, the only work he wrote in the key. He followed it with No. 24…is a dark and passionate work, made more striking by its classical restraint.” WK “The final work of the year, No. 25…is one of the most expansive of all classical concertos, rivaling Beethoven's fifth piano concerto.” WK This “was the last of the regular series of concertos Mozart wrote for his subscription concerts.” WK

26-27 are referred to as the Later concertos. No. 26, “completed in February 1788, has a mixed reputation and possibly is the revision of a smaller chamber concerto into a larger structure.” WK No. 27, the last concerto, “was the first work from the last year of Mozart's life: it represents a return to form for Mozart in the genre.” WK

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